Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Kolkata, India: Prevalence, Pathogenesis and Potential Disease Biomarkers

Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2020 Apr;128(4):216-223. doi: 10.1055/a-0794-6057. Epub 2018 Dec 3.


Aims: Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) may vary across a country like India. Risk factors and disease-pathogenesis were also not fully elucidated. This study aimed to examine prevalence of GDM among pregnant women visiting antenatal clinic of a tertiary-care hospital of Kolkata, India; possible mechanism of disease pathogenesis and potency of associated parameters as disease biomarkers were also explored.

Methods: 735 pregnant women were screened for GDM according to DIPSI (Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group India) guideline and risk-factors were analyzed. Case-control study was conducted with 114 GDM and 114 matched non-GDM control. Blood sample was collected before glucose load for complete blood count, measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and assessment of DNA damage.

Results: Prevalence of GDM was found to be 17.2%(127/735). Maternal age, diabetic family history and acanthosis nigricans seemed to be important risk factors. Total ROS, lymphocyte DNA damage (measured by comet-assay) and some inflammatory hematological parameters were significantly higher in GDM compared to control. ROS, comet-tail DNA%, WBC, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and mean platelet volume (MPV) were established as independent determinants of disease condition after adjustment for pre-gestational body mass index. In receiver operating characteristic analysis, ROS>155.7 arbitrary fluorescent unit, NLR>2.12 and MPV>11.05 fL showed 82.5 & 98.2%, 71.9 & 84.2% and 71.9 & 82.5% sensitivity & specificity respectively in disease prediction.

Conclusions: Prevalence of GDM seemed to be high in Kolkata on Indian scenario. Oxidative-stress, related DNA-damage and inflammation seemed to have important contribution in pathogenesis of GDM independent of obesity. ROS, NLR and MPV with respective cut-off scores might be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for better management of the disease.

MeSH terms

  • Acanthosis Nigricans / epidemiology
  • Adult
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes, Gestational / blood*
  • Diabetes, Gestational / epidemiology*
  • Diabetes, Gestational / etiology*
  • Female
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Inflammation / blood*
  • Inflammation / epidemiology
  • Pregnancy
  • Prevalence
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / blood*
  • Risk Factors
  • Tertiary Care Centers
  • Young Adult


  • Biomarkers
  • Reactive Oxygen Species