Aims: Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) may vary across a country like India. Risk factors and disease-pathogenesis were also not fully elucidated. This study aimed to examine prevalence of GDM among pregnant women visiting antenatal clinic of a tertiary-care hospital of Kolkata, India; possible mechanism of disease pathogenesis and potency of associated parameters as disease biomarkers were also explored.
Methods: 735 pregnant women were screened for GDM according to DIPSI (Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group India) guideline and risk-factors were analyzed. Case-control study was conducted with 114 GDM and 114 matched non-GDM control. Blood sample was collected before glucose load for complete blood count, measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and assessment of DNA damage.
Results: Prevalence of GDM was found to be 17.2%(127/735). Maternal age, diabetic family history and acanthosis nigricans seemed to be important risk factors. Total ROS, lymphocyte DNA damage (measured by comet-assay) and some inflammatory hematological parameters were significantly higher in GDM compared to control. ROS, comet-tail DNA%, WBC, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and mean platelet volume (MPV) were established as independent determinants of disease condition after adjustment for pre-gestational body mass index. In receiver operating characteristic analysis, ROS>155.7 arbitrary fluorescent unit, NLR>2.12 and MPV>11.05 fL showed 82.5 & 98.2%, 71.9 & 84.2% and 71.9 & 82.5% sensitivity & specificity respectively in disease prediction.
Conclusions: Prevalence of GDM seemed to be high in Kolkata on Indian scenario. Oxidative-stress, related DNA-damage and inflammation seemed to have important contribution in pathogenesis of GDM independent of obesity. ROS, NLR and MPV with respective cut-off scores might be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for better management of the disease.
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