Background: While previous studies have identified relationships between hippocampal volumes and memory performance in schizophrenia, these relationships are not apparent in healthy individuals. Further, few studies have examined the role of hippocampal subfields in illness-related memory deficits, and no study has examined potential differences across varying illness stages. The current study aimed to investigate whether individuals with early and established psychosis exhibited differential relationships between visuospatial associative memory and hippocampal subfield volumes.
Methods: Measurements of visuospatial associative memory performance and grey matter volume were obtained from 52 individuals with a chronic schizophrenia-spectrum disorder, 28 youth with recent-onset psychosis, 52 older healthy controls, and 28 younger healthy controls.
Results: Both chronic and recent-onset patients had impaired visuospatial associative memory performance, however, only chronic patients showed hippocampal subfield volume loss. Both chronic and recent-onset patients demonstrated relationships between visuospatial associative memory performance and hippocampal subfield volumes in the CA4/dentate gyrus and the stratum that were not observed in older healthy controls. There were no group by volume interactions when chronic and recent-onset patients were compared.
Conclusions: The current study extends the findings of previous studies by identifying particular hippocampal subfields, including the hippocampal stratum layers and the dentate gyrus, that appear to be related to visuospatial associative memory ability in individuals with both chronic and first-episode psychosis.
Keywords: CANTAB; dentate gyrus; first-episode psychosis; hippocampal subfields; hippocampus; memory; schizophrenia; visuospatial associative memory.