Stimuli-responsive graphene-incorporated multifunctional chitosan for drug delivery applications: a review

Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2019 Jan;16(1):79-99. doi: 10.1080/17425247.2019.1556257. Epub 2018 Dec 21.


Introduction: Recently, the use of chitosan (CS) in the drug delivery has reached an acceptable maturity. Graphene-based drug delivery is also increasing rapidly due to its unique physical, mechanical, chemical, and electrical properties. Therefore, the combination of CS and graphene can provide a promising carrier for the loading and controlled release of therapeutic agents.

Areas covered: In this review, we will outline the advantages of this new drug delivery system (DDS) in association with CS and graphene alone and will list the various forms of these carriers, which have been studied in recent years as DDSs. Finally, we will discuss the application of this hybrid composite in other fields.

Expert opinion: The introducing the GO amends the mechanical characteristics of CS, which is a major problem in the use of CS-based carriers in drug delivery due to burst release in a CS-based controlled release system through the poor mechanical strength of CS. Many related research on this area are still not fully unstated and occasionally they seem inconsistent in spite of the intent to be complementary. Therefore, a sensitive review may be needed to understand the role of graphene in CS/graphene carriers for future drug delivery applications.

Keywords: Graphene; chitosan; drug delivery; hydrogel; nanoparticle; stimuli-sensitive nanocomposite.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Chitosan / chemistry*
  • Drug Carriers / chemistry
  • Drug Delivery Systems*
  • Graphite / chemistry*
  • Humans


  • Drug Carriers
  • Graphite
  • Chitosan