Background: Checkpoint inhibitors have not been effective for prostate cancer as single agents. Durvalumab is a human IgG1-K monoclonal antibody that targets programmed death ligand 1 and is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer and locally advanced, unresectable stage 3 non-small cell lung cancer. Olaparib, a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, has demonstrated an improvement in median progression-free survival (PFS) in select patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Data from other trials suggest there may be improved activity in men with DNA damage repair (DDR) mutations treated with checkpoint inhibitors. This trial evaluated durvalumab and olaparib in patients with mCRPC with and without somatic or germline DDR mutations.
Methods: Eligible patients had received prior enzalutamide and/or abiraterone. Patients received durvalumab 1500 mg i.v. every 28 days and olaparib 300 mg tablets p.o. every 12 h until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. All patients had biopsies of metastatic lesions with an evaluation for both germline and somatic mutations.
Results: Seventeen patients received durvalumab and olaparib. Nausea was the only nonhematologic grade 3 or 4 toxicity occurring in > 1 patient (2/17). No patients were taken off trial for toxicity. Median radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) for all patients is 16.1 months (95% CI: 4.5-16.1 months) with a 12-month rPFS of 51.5% (95% CI: 25.7-72.3%). Activity is seen in patients with alterations in DDR genes, with a median rPFS of 16.1 months (95% CI: 7.8-18.1 months). Nine of 17 (53%) patients had a radiographic and/or PSA response. Patients with fewer peripheral myeloid-derived suppressor cells and with alterations in DDR genes were more likely to respond. Early changes in circulating tumor cell counts and in both innate and adaptive immune characteristics were associated with response.
Conclusions: Durvalumab plus olaparib has acceptable toxicity, and the combination demonstrates efficacy, particularly in men with DDR abnormalities.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02484404 .
Keywords: Abiraterone; Anti-PD-L1; Durvalumab; Enzalutamide; Immunotherapy; Olaparib; PARP inhibitor; mCRPC.