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. 2018 Oct;26(3):156-159.
doi: 10.5455/aim.2018.26.156-159.

Association Between - 675 ID, 4G/5G PAI-1 Gene Polymorphism and Pregnancy Loss: A Systematic Review

Free PMC article

Association Between - 675 ID, 4G/5G PAI-1 Gene Polymorphism and Pregnancy Loss: A Systematic Review

Grazyna Adler et al. Acta Inform Med. .
Free PMC article


Introduction: Several analysis for different population conclude that endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 gene polymorphism, -675 ID, 4G/5G PAI-1 (ref SNP ID: rs1799889, also described as rs34857375, has merged into rs1799762) may increase risk of pregnancy loss (PL). However, there is a disagreement as to the association 4G allele with pregnancy loss.

Aim: Therefore, we decided to investigate the -675 ID, 4G/5G PAI-1 as a potential genetic factor linked to PL in European and worldwide populations. A systematic review of the scientific literature was conducted with the use of the PubMed and Scopus electronic databases (1991-present), using the following search terms: pregnancy loss, miscarriage, genetic risk of thrombophilia, rs1799889 PAI-1 gen, 4G/5G PAI-1 gene polymorphism, PAI-1 gene locus 4G/5G polymorphism.

Results: Among European populations, the statistically significant association between 4G allele and recurrent PL only in Czechs and Bulgarian women was found (p<0.002 and p=0.018, respectively); while, among populations outside Europe in Iranian, Tunisian and Turkish women (each p<0.001).

Conclusions: We concluded, that both in Europe and elsewhere in the world, the high frequency of 4G allele in population, is not unambiguously linked with the risk of pregnancy loss.

Keywords: PAI-1 gene; genetic risk; polymorphism; pregnancy loss.


Figure 1.
Figure 1.. Frequency of 4G allele PAI-1 gene in European women, with and without PL. 1- Bulgaria (13), 2- Czech Republic (14), 3- Germany (16), 4- Germany (17), 5- Bosnia and Herzegovina (11), 6- Serbia (23), 7- Bulgaria (12). Note that data 1-4, 7 but not 5 and 6 are for recurrent PL
Figure 2.
Figure 2.. Frequency of 4G allele PAI-1 gene in some populations outside Europe, both in women with and without PL. 1- Korea (22), 2- Turkey, (26), 3-Turkey (27), 4- India (18), 5- Iran (20), 6- Iran (19), 7- the Gaza Strip (24), 8- Tunisia (25), 9-Iran (21), 10- Egypt (15). All data for recurrent PL
Figure 3.
Figure 3.. The relationship between statistically significant effect linked with women with PL and the frequency of 4G allele, both in and outside Europe. 1- Germany (16), 2- Korea (22), 3- Bosnia and Herzegovina (11), 4- Bulgaria (12), 5- India (18), 6- Iran (19), 7- the Gaza Strip (24), 8- Egypt (15), 9- Germany (17), 10- Serbia (23), 11- Bulgaria (13), 12- Czech Republic (14), 13- Turkey (26), 14-Turkey (27), 15- Iran (20), 16- Tunisia (25), 17- Iran (21)

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