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, 12 (6), 479-485

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Agar free-Gelidium Amansii (GA) Extracts in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

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Anti-inflammatory Effects of Agar free-Gelidium Amansii (GA) Extracts in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

Yunkyoung Lee et al. Nutr Res Pract.

Abstract

Background/objectives: Gelidium amansii (GA) contains plenty of agars and various biological substances, which make them a popular functional food to control body weight in previous studies. Unlike previous studies focused on agar in GA, objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of agar-free GA extract (AfGAE) on preventive and treatment models by using diets-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice.

Materials/methods: AfGAE were used to test their effects on the prevention (Exp-1) and treatment (Exp-2) against obesity after pilot study in DIO mice. The weight changes of the body and fat tissues and protein expression related to lipid metabolism and inflammation as well as plasma lipid profile and insulin were detected.

Results: Although AfGAE did not prevent long-term DIO, it did increase the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine production and lipolysis protein. We further evaluated various doses of AfGAE in preventive and treatment models. As a result, our findings suggested that an AfGAE administration as a preventive model might be a better approach to achieve its anti-inflammatory and lipolysis-promoting effects in DIO mice.

Conclusion: Although future studies to investigate the target materials such as polyphenols in AfGAE are required, the result suggests that GA without agar might be a therapeutic tool to improve health conditions related to inflammation.

Keywords: DIO; Gelidium amansii; IL-10; Inflammatory cytokine; agar-free.

Conflict of interest statement

CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors declare no potential conflicts of interests.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1. Design of in vivo experiments
Pilot: male 8-wk old C57BL/6J mice were stabilized for 1 wk, followed by 5 wks of DIO induction by HFD, and then were fed either HFD or HFD + AfGAE (250 mg/kg of body weight) for 8 wks (n = 5/group); Exp-1. Preventive model of AfGAE: male 8-wk old C57BL/6J mice were stabilized (S) and acclimatized (A) for oral administration, followed by oral administration of different doses of AfGAE (0, 250, 300, 500, 1,000 mg/kg of body weight, n = 5/group) with HFD for 8 wks; Exp-2. Treatment model of AfGAE: male 8-wk old C57BL/6J mice were stabilized for 1 wk, followed by 5 wks of DIO induction by HFD including the acclimation period of oral administration, and then fed different doses of AfGAE (0, 250, 300, 500, 1,000 mg/kg, n = 5/group) for 8 wks.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2. Effects of Agar-free GAE (AfGAE) administration regarding inflammation and lipolysis related factors in HFD fed C57BL/6J mice
Data are represented as the mean ± SD (n = 5). Bars that do not share the same superscript are significantly different by t-test (P < 0.05). Panel A & B; representative immunoblot analysis of lipolysis related proteins, ACC and pHSL/total HSL of mesenteric fat pad, Panel C & D; representative immunoblot analysis of anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-10 and adiponectin, in epididymal fat pad from mice fed HFD or HFD + AfGAE.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3. Effects of AfGAE administration in a preventive model, Exp-1, on changes of metabolic parameters, lipolysis and inflammation-related proteins in mesenteric adipose tissue of HFD fed C57BL/6J mice
Data are represented as mean ± SD (n = 5). Bars that do not share the same superscript are significantly different by ANOVA (P < 0.05). Panel A–C: final body weight, brown adipose tissue (BAT) weight, and fat to muscle mass ratio, Panel D & E: Representative immunoblot analysis of lipolysis and inflammation-related proteins, phosphorylation levels of HSL, total ACC, IL-10, and adiponectin in mesenteric fat pad from mice fed HFD or HFD + various doses of AfGAE in a preventive model.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4. Effects of AfGAE administration in a treatment model, Exp-2, on metabolic parameters, lipolysis and inflammation-related proteins in mesenteric adipose tissue of HFD fed C57BL/6J mice
Data are represented as mean ± SD (n = 5). Bars that do not share the same superscript are significantly different by ANOVA (P < 0.05). Panel A–C: final body weight, brown adipose tissue (BAT) weight, and fat to muscle mass ratio, Panel D & E: Representative immunoblot analysis of lipolysis and inflammation-related proteins, phosphorylation levels of HSL, total ACC, IL-10, and adiponectin in mesenteric fat pad from mice fed HFD or HFD + various doses of AfGAE in a treatment model.

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