Estimates of the Prevalence of Speech and Motor Speech Disorders in Youth With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2019 Feb 21;28(1):53-82. doi: 10.1044/2018_AJSLP-18-0037.


Purpose Speech sound disorders and velopharyngeal dysfunction are frequent features of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q). We report the first estimate of the prevalence of motor speech disorders (MSDs) in youth with 22q. Method Seventeen children and adolescents with 22q completed an assessment protocol that included a conversational speech sample. Data reduction included phonetic transcription, perceptual speech ratings, prosody-voice coding, and acoustic analyses. Data analyses included 3 motor speech measures and a cross-classification analytic. Prevalence estimates of speech and MSDs in youth with 22q were compared with estimates in speakers with other complex neurodevelopmental disorders: Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, and galactosemia. Results Results indicated that 58.8% of the participants with 22q met criteria for speech delay, and 82.4% of the participants met criteria for MSDs, including 29.4% with speech motor delay, 29.4% with childhood dysarthria, 11.8% with childhood apraxia of speech, and 11.8% with concurrent childhood dysarthria and childhood apraxia of speech. MSDs were not significantly associated with velopharyngeal dysfunction. Conclusions In summary, 82.4% of the participants with 22q met criteria for 1 of 4 MSDs, predominantly speech motor delay and childhood dysarthria. Cross-validation of the present findings would support viewing MSDs as a core phenotypic feature of 22q.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • DiGeorge Syndrome / complications*
  • DiGeorge Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Down Syndrome / complications
  • Down Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Dysarthria / diagnosis
  • Dysarthria / epidemiology
  • Dysarthria / etiology
  • Female
  • Fragile X Syndrome / complications
  • Fragile X Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Galactosemias / complications
  • Galactosemias / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Language Development Disorders / diagnosis
  • Language Development Disorders / epidemiology
  • Language Development Disorders / etiology*
  • Language Tests
  • Male
  • Phonetics
  • Prevalence
  • Speech Disorders / diagnosis
  • Speech Disorders / epidemiology
  • Speech Disorders / etiology*
  • Speech Production Measurement / methods
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Young Adult