Background: Recent data have demonstrated multiple benefits of intra- and postoperative fluid restriction in major abdominal surgery; however, data regarding the outcomes of fluid restriction in cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (CRS/HIPEC) are limited. This study evaluates the safety and short-term clinical outcomes of restricted intraoperative fluid therapy in CRS/HIPEC.
Methods: This was a single-institution, retrospective review of all CRS/HIPEC procedures performed at the University of Massachusetts Medical School between January 2009 and July 2017. Recorded variables included demographics, intraoperative factors, 60-day postoperative complications, and length of stay (LOS). Outcomes based on the use of intraoperative permissive fluid therapy (PFT) versus restrictive fluid therapy (RFT) were compared.
Results: Overall, 169 CRS/HIPEC cases were performed during the study period; 84 were managed with PFT and 85 were managed with RFT. No significant differences were identified in patient demographics. There was a decrease in intraoperative administration of crystalloid (8.0 vs. 4.4 L, p < 0.01), colloid (900 vs. 300 mL, p < 0.01), and blood transfusion (0.26 vs. 0.04 units, p < 0.01) in the RFT cohort. LOS was reduced from 11.5 to 9.7 days (p < 0.01) and the incidence of any 60-day complication decreased from 45 to 28% (p = 0.02) in the RFT group. The overall 90-day mortality rate was 0.6% (n = 1). Adjusted logistic regression demonstrated the odds of having a Clavien-Dindo grade III or higher complication was 0.31 (95% confidence interval 0.10-0.95) with RFT.
Conclusion: Intraoperative RFT with standard anesthesia monitoring devices can be safely used in CRS/HIPEC and is associated with a decreased LOS and decreased rate of postoperative complications.