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Review
, 19 (12)

Genetic Polymorphisms Associated With Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

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Review

Genetic Polymorphisms Associated With Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Yi-Chun Chen et al. Int J Mol Sci.

Abstract

Differences in the incidence of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) between ethnicities exist, with an estimated 42% of the variance explained by ethnicity itself. Caucasians have a higher proportion of lobar ICH (LICH, 15.4% of all ICH) than do Asians (3.4%). Alterations in the causal factor exposure between countries justify part of the ethnic variance in ICH incidence. One third of ICH risk can be explained by genetic variation; therefore, genetic differences between populations can partly explain the difference in ICH incidence. In this paper, we review the current knowledge of genetic variants associated with ICH in multiple ethnicities. Candidate gene variants reportedly associated with ICH were involved in the potential pathways of hypertension, vessel wall integrity, lipid metabolism, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, platelet function, and coagulopathy. Furthermore, variations in APOE (in multiple ethnicities), PMF1/SLC25A44 (in European), ACE (in Asian), MTHFR (in multiple ethnicities), TRHDE (in European), and COL4A2 (in European) were the most convincingly associated with ICH. The majority of the associated genes provide small contributions to ICH risk, with few of them being replicated in multiple ethnicities.

Keywords: association studies; ethnicities; genetics; intracerebral hemorrhage.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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