Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common complications of diabetes. In this study, we employed a systems biology approach to identify DPN-related transcriptional pathways conserved across human and various murine models. Eight microarray datasets on peripheral nerve samples from murine models of type 1 (streptozotocin-treated) and type 2 (db/db and ob/ob) diabetes of various ages and human subjects with non-progressive and progressive DPN were collected. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between non-diabetic and diabetic samples in murine models, and non-progressive and progressive human samples using a unified analysis pipeline. A transcriptional network for each DEG set was constructed based on literature-derived gene-gene interaction information. Seven pairwise human-vs-murine comparisons using a network-comparison program resulted in shared sub-networks including 46 to 396 genes, which were further merged into a single network of 688 genes. Pathway and centrality analyses revealed highly connected genes and pathways including LXR/RXR activation, adipogenesis, glucocorticoid receptor signalling, and multiple cytokine and chemokine pathways. Our systems biology approach identified highly conserved pathways across human and murine models that are likely to play a role in DPN pathogenesis and provide new possible mechanism-based targets for DPN therapy.