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Review
. 2018 Feb;32(1):125-136.
doi: 10.1016/j.berh.2018.07.009. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

The Complications of Vasculitis and Its Treatment

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Review

The Complications of Vasculitis and Its Treatment

Catherine King et al. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. .

Abstract

Survival following a diagnosis of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) has improved since the introduction of cyclophosphamide-based immunosuppressive regimens and is now almost 80% at 5 years. However, mortality remains 2.6 times greater in the population with AAV than in an age- and sex-matched general population. The greatest risk of harm for patients with AAV is during the first year of diagnosis and from the adverse events associated with treatment rather than with active vasculitis. Infection, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and malignancy are the most common causes of death during follow-up. New regimens including rituximab, although with an efficacy similar to that of cyclophosphamide, have not yet shown a clear reduction in adverse events. Therapy for AAV must currently encompass a much greater focus on preventing harm from treatment through vaccination, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) prophylaxis, CVD risk assessment and bone protection measures.

Keywords: ANCA; Adverse events; Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV); Cyclophosphamide; Maintenance therapy; Rituximab.

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