Five-year clinical outcomes of uterine artery embolization for symptomatic leiomyomas: An analysis of risk factors for reintervention

Eur J Radiol. 2018 Dec:109:83-87. doi: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2018.10.017. Epub 2018 Oct 28.


Objectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the five-year reintervention rate of uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic leiomyomas and to identify potential predictive factors of reintervention.

Methods: From March 2011 to February 2012, 92 consecutive women (mean age 41.9 years, range 28-55 years) underwent bilateral UAE. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at three-month follow-up. After annual follow-up, a survey on clinical outcome and reintervention incidences was performed at five-year follow-up. Potential predictive factors of reintervention were evaluated.

Results: Of the 67 patients, menorrhagia and/or bulk-related symptoms were resolved after UAE in all but one patient (98.5%). At median follow-up of 60 months (range, 5-60 months), reintervention rate was 10.4%, with seven reintervention cases (five myomectomy and two hysterectomy cases). Complete (100%) or near complete (90-99%) infarction rate of the dominant leiomyoma was 96.4% (54 of 56). Independent factors of reintervention on multivariate logistics regression analysis included near complete or partial (<90%) infarction of the dominant leiomyoma (odds ratio [OR] 22.238; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.405-205.620; p = 0.006), as well as the presence of non-dominant viable leiomyomas (OR 12.134; 95% CI 1.213-121.409; p = 0.034).

Conclusion: UAE provides excellent and sustained symptom improvement of symptomatic leiomyomas with a low reintervention rate at five-year follow-up. In addition to near complete or partial infarction of the dominant leiomyoma on follow-up MRI, the presence of viable non-dominant leiomyomas indicates a higher risk of reintervention.

Keywords: Embolization; Fibroid; Myoma; Risk factor analysis; Uterus.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hysterectomy / methods
  • Leiomyoma / therapy*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • Menorrhagia / therapy
  • Middle Aged
  • Retreatment
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Uterine Artery Embolization / methods*
  • Uterine Neoplasms / therapy*