MUCOSAL anti-infections vaccines: Beyond conventional vaccines

Reumatol Clin (Engl Ed). 2020 Jan-Feb;16(1):49-55. doi: 10.1016/j.reuma.2018.10.012. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
[Article in English, Spanish]


An urgent search is currently underway for alternatives to antibiotics to prevent infections, due to the accelerated evolution and increase in antibiotic resistance. This problem is more serious for patients with recurrent infections, since they have to use many cycles of antibiotics per year, so the risk for antibiotic resistance is higher and can be life-threatening. In recent years, the use of prophylactic vaccines via the mucosal route for these patients with recurrent infections has been demonstrated as a potentially beneficial and safe alternative to prevent infections. The new knowledge about mucosal immunity and trained immunity, a form of innate immunity memory that can enhance the response to different infectious threads, has made it easier to extend its use. The application of the new concepts of trained immunity may explain the simultaneous pro-tolerogenic and boosting effect or effects of these drugs on diverse immune cells for different infections. In this review, we describe the immunomodulatory mechanisms of mucosal polybacterial vaccines and their connection with trained immunity and its utility in the prevention of recurrent infections in immunosuppressed patients.

Keywords: Infecciones de repetición; Inmunidad entrenada; Mucosal vaccines; Recurrent infections; Trained immunity; Vacunas de mucosas.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Mucosal
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Autoimmune Diseases / immunology
  • Bacterial Infections / prevention & control*
  • Bacterial Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Bacterial Vaccines / immunology*
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Immunity, Mucosal*
  • Immunologic Memory*
  • Recurrence
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / therapy
  • Secondary Prevention / methods*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Bacterial Vaccines