Comparison of Laparoscopic and Open Approach in Treating Gallbladder Cancer

J Surg Res. 2019 Feb:234:269-276. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2018.09.025. Epub 2018 Oct 16.


Background: Preliminary study on the feasibility and efficacy of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and radical cholecystectomy in stage Tis-T3 gallbladder cancer (GBC).

Methods: Retrospective analysis of the clinical data of 102 patients with GBC from August 2008 to August 2017 in the Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University. The clinical and pathological data of laparoscopic surgery and open surgery were compared.

Results: Of 102 patients with GBC, 41 underwent laparoscopic treatment, 12 of whom underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and the others underwent laparoscopic radical cholecystectomy/extended radical cholecystectomy. Sixty-one patients underwent radical cholecystectomy/extended radical cholecystectomy. Based on the individual patient's condition, excision of the extrahepatic biliary tract and cholangioenterostomy were performed. There were no perioperative deaths. There was no significant difference in the operative blood loss (P = 0.732), operative time (P = 0.058), postoperative complications (P = 0.933), R0 margins (P = 0.679), and tumor-related death (P = 0.396) between the laparoscopic group and the laparotomy group. The postoperative activity time (P < 0.001), postoperative eating time (P < 0.001), drainage tube removal time (P < 0.001), and postoperative hospital discharge time (P < 0.001) in the laparoscopic group were all earlier than those in the laparotomy group, and the difference was statistically significant. The number of lymph nodes resected in the laparoscopic group and the laparotomy group was 1-17, average (5 ± 3) and 1-13 average (5 ± 3), respectively, with no statistically significant difference (P = 0.973). The 1-, 3-, and 5-y survival rates in the laparoscopic group were 97.1%, 69.4%, and 51.9%, respectively, and those in the laparotomy group were 94.7%, 64.9%, and 55.7%, respectively; there were no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.453). In terms of different pathologic T stages, the 5-y survival rates of patients with stage Tis (9 cases), T1a (2 cases), T1b (8 cases), T2 (14 cases), and T3 (8 cases) disease in the laparoscopic group were 100%, 100%, 75%, 48.1%, and 12.5%, respectively, and the 5-y survival rates in patients with stage Tis (4 cases), T1b (9 cases), T2 (32 cases), and T3 (16 cases) disease in the laparotomy group were 100%, 87.5%, 64.7%, and 16%, respectively; there were no significant differences between the two groups.

Conclusions: Laparoscopic treatment of stage Tis-T3 GBC is feasible. Laparoscopic treatment of GBC does not increase the incision metastasis rate on the basis of the intact gallbladder wall. The same survival rates can be achieved with laparoscopic treatment as with open treatment of GBC. In terms of postoperative rehabilitation, laparoscopic treatment has more advantages.

Keywords: Gallbladder cancer; Laparoscopy; Prognosis; Radical gallbladder surgery.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / mortality
  • Adenocarcinoma / pathology
  • Adenocarcinoma / surgery*
  • Adenoma / mortality
  • Adenoma / pathology
  • Adenoma / surgery*
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery*
  • Cholecystectomy / methods*
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gallbladder Neoplasms / mortality
  • Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Laparoscopy*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Postoperative Complications / epidemiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Survival Analysis
  • Treatment Outcome