TGFβ and BMPRII signalling pathways in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension

Drug Discov Today. 2019 Mar;24(3):703-716. doi: 10.1016/j.drudis.2018.12.001. Epub 2018 Dec 7.


Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe condition characterised by remodelling of precapillary pulmonary arteries sometimes associated with mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) gene. Even in the absence of BMPR2 mutations, increased transforming growth factor (TGF)β receptor signalling and decreased BMPRII signalling have been shown to contribute to PAH pathogenesis. In this Keynote, we review the potential mechanisms by which the imbalance of BMP/TGFβ signalling contributes to endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodelling, inflammation and disordered angiogenesis in PAH. Additionally, we highlight how currently used drugs can influence BMP/TGFβ signalling. Finally, we browse the newly developed therapeutic approaches targeting BMPRII and TGFβ signalling pathways by focusing on preclinical studies and clinical trials and put them into perspectives.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / metabolism*
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Neovascularization, Physiologic
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism*


  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II