3‑Bromo‑5‑(ethoxymethyl)‑1,2‑benzenediol inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses by preventing ROS production and downregulating NF-κB in vitro and in a zebrafish model

Int Immunopharmacol. 2019 Feb:67:98-105. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2018.11.021. Epub 2018 Dec 8.


The anti-inflammatory effects of 3‑bromo‑5‑(ethoxymethyl)‑1,2‑benzenediol (BEMB) from Polysiphonia morrowii were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells and zebrafish embryo. BEMB showed anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells and zebrafish embryo without cytotoxicity. Moreover, BEMB suppressed the protein and mRNA expression levels of nuclear factor (NF)-κB (p65 and inhibitor of NF-κB [IκB]-A) in RAW264.7 cells and zebrafish embryo, respectively. Collectively, the results of this study indicate that BEMB suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as NO, iNOS, and COX-2 as well as their regulation in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells and zebrafish embryos by inhibiting ROS production and NF-κB expression. Therefore, this study suggests that BEMB could be a potential anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

Keywords: Anti-inflammatory; BEMB; NF-κB; RAW264.7 cells; ROS; Zebrafish embryo.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use
  • Benzene / chemistry
  • Benzene / therapeutic use*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Down-Regulation
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian
  • Fish Proteins / genetics
  • Fish Proteins / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / drug therapy*
  • Lipopolysaccharides / immunology
  • Mice
  • NF-kappa B / genetics
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism*
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / genetics
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism
  • RAW 264.7 Cells
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Rhodophyta / immunology
  • Zebrafish


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Fish Proteins
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • NF-kappa B
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Benzene