Cancer causes significant death and disability globally. However, costs of more personalized cancer care continue to climb, while access to basic cancer screening and treatment is not available to much of the world. This chapter provides an overview of the status of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in cancer clinical care and research. PROs are valuable for health care and health economic decision-making at institutional, regional, national, and international levels. PRO data should be considered along with cost and survival data when approving new therapies. PRO data can also be helpful when assessing existing treatment options for patients, particularly for drugs with minor outcome and toxicity differences. Finally, PROs can be useful in reimbursement algorithms to ensure delivery of quality cancer care in value-based financing environments. The authors advocate for reframing the concept of health value, aligning PRO measures with societal values, and broadening the definition of society to extend beyond national boundaries.
Keywords: Cancer; Cost; Health economics; PROs; Patient-centered care; Patient-reported outcomes; Value.