US acculturation and poor sleep among an intergenerational cohort of adult Latinos in Sacramento, California

Sleep. 2019 Mar 1;42(3):zsy246. doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsy246.


Acculturation may shape the disproportionate burden of poor sleep among Latinos in the United States. Existing studies are limited by unidimensional acculturation proxies that are incapable of capturing cultural complexities across generations. Understanding how acculturation relates to sleep may lead to the identification of modifiable intervention targets. We used multivariable regression and latent class methods to examine cross-sectional associations between a validated multidimensional scale of US acculturation and self-reported poor sleep measures. We analyzed an intergenerational cohort: first-generation (GEN1) older Latinos (Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging; N = 1,716; median age: 69.5) and second-generation (GEN2) middle-aged offspring and relatives of GEN1 (Niños Lifestyle and Diabetes Study; N = 670; median age: 54.0) in Sacramento, California. GEN1 with high US acculturation, compared with high acculturation towards another origin/ancestral country, had less restless sleep (prevalence ratio [PR] [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 0.67 [0.54, 0.84]) and a higher likelihood of being in the best sleep class than the worst (OR [95% CI]: 1.62 [1.09, 2.40]), but among nonmanual occupations, high intergenerational US acculturation was associated with more general fatigue (PR [95% CI: 1.86 [1.11, 3.10]). GEN2 with high intergenerational US acculturation reported shorter sleep (PR [95% CI]: 2.86 [1.02, 7.99]). High US acculturation shaped sleep differentially by generation, socioeconomic context, and intergenerational acculturative status. High US acculturation was associated with better sleep among older, lower socioeconomic Latinos, but with shorter sleep duration among middle-aged, higher socioeconomic Latinos; results also differed by parental acculturation status. Upon replication, future studies should incorporate prospective and intergenerational designs to uncover sociobehavioral pathways by which acculturation may shape sleep to ultimately inform intervention efforts.

Keywords: Latino health; acculturation; aging; intergenerational; lifecourse; sleep.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Acculturation*
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • California / ethnology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Hispanic or Latino / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Intergenerational Relations / ethnology*
  • Life Style
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Sleep / physiology
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / diagnosis
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / ethnology*
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / psychology*
  • United States / ethnology