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. 2018 Dec 12;10(12):1964.
doi: 10.3390/nu10121964.

The Dietary Intervention of Transgenic Low-Gliadin Wheat Bread in Patients With Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS) Showed No Differences With Gluten Free Diet (GFD) but Provides Better Gut Microbiota Profile

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Free PMC article

The Dietary Intervention of Transgenic Low-Gliadin Wheat Bread in Patients With Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS) Showed No Differences With Gluten Free Diet (GFD) but Provides Better Gut Microbiota Profile

Carmen Haro et al. Nutrients. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The study evaluated the symptoms, acceptance, and digestibility of bread made from transgenic low-gliadin wheat, in comparison with gluten free bread, in Non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) patients, considering clinical/sensory parameters and gut microbiota composition. This study was performed in two phases of seven days each, comprising a basal phase with gluten free bread and an E82 phase with low-gliadin bread. Gastrointestinal clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) questionnaire, and stool samples were collected for gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) determination and the extraction of gut microbial DNA. For the basal and E82 phases, seven and five patients, respectively, showed undetectable GIPs content. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene V1-V2 hypervariable regions were sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform and downstream analysis was done using a Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) pipeline. No significant differences in the GSRS questionnaires were observed between the two phases. However, we observed a significantly lower abundance of some gut genera Oscillospira, Dorea, Blautia, Bacteroides, Coprococcus, and Collinsella, and a significantly higher abundance of Roseburia and Faecalibacterium genera during the E82 phase compared with the basal phase. The consumption of low-gliadin bread E82 by NCGS subjects induced potentially positive changes in the gut microbiota composition, increasing the butyrate-producing bacteria and favoring a microbial profile that is suggested to have a key role in the maintenance or improvement of gut permeability.

Keywords: NCGS; digestive disorder; gluten; gut-microbiota; next-generation sequencing.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest. None of the authors has any conflict of interest that could affect the performance of the work or the interpretation of the data.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Low-gliadin E82 bread characteristics: (a) E82/wild type ratio for main grain components; (b) low-gliadin breads used for the dietary intervention, and (c) gluten content values (ppm) as determined using the monoclonal antibody R5 for E82 and standard flours and breads.
Figure 2
Figure 2
(a) Clinical symptoms evaluated at each of the phases of the study by the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) questionnaire; (b) Comparison of the faecal Gluten Immunogenic Peptides (GIP) content after consumption of gluten-free bread (Basal) and the low-gliadin bread (E82).
Figure 3
Figure 3
(a) Differences in global acceptance of the two phases of the dietary intervention; (b) Values of the sensory questionnaire for appearance, aroma, flavor, and texture for the gluten-free bread (Basal) and the low-gliadin bread (E82).
Figure 4
Figure 4
Differences in the gut microbiota composition between the basal phase and the E82 phase at family, genus, and species level. Values are the mean ± S.E.M. The statistically significant differences between each phase were tested using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. * p < 0.05. In the bar diagrams are represented: (a) bacterial families whose average relative abundance is greater than 10%; (b) bacterial families whose average relative abundance is less than 10% but greater than 1%, with the exception of the family Bacteroidaceae (0.07% of average relative abundance); (c) bacterial genera whose average relative abundance is greater than 1%; (d) bacterial genera whose average relative abundance is less than 1%; (e) bacterial species whose average relative abundance is ≥1%.

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