Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Zn/Fe Ratiometric Determination of Zinc Levels in Expressed Prostatic Fluid: A Direct, Non-Invasive and Highly Accurate Screening for Prostate Cancer

Acta Sci Cancer Biol. 2018 Nov;2(9):20-26. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Abstract

Prostate specific antigen (PSA) does not provide the reliability that is required for the accurate urology screening of prostate cancer (PCa). Consequently, there has been a major focus and search for a simple, rapid, direct, preferably non-invasive, and highly accurate biomarker and procedure for the urology screening for prostate cancer. Virtually all PCa cases exhibit a marked decrease in zinc in prostate tissue and in prostatic fluid. This is a hallmark "signature" clinical characteristic for all prostate cancers, which provides the clinical basis for zinc screening of PCa. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) of zinc levels in expressed prostatic fluid (EPF) provides > 90% accuracy for the identification of prostate cancer vs normal/benign prostate. An energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) Zn/Fe ratiometric analysis of expressed prostatic fluid (EPF) can provide > 90% accuracy for the identification of prostate cancer vs normal/benign prostate. This will be achieved by direct EDXRF analysis of a "drop" of EPF directly deposited on a filter paper disc during the urology digital rectal examination of the subject. Interfering and confounding conditions that besiege PSA do not exist in the EDXRF Zn/Fe radiometric analyses. This report reviews the basis for zinc analysis for PCA, provides the supporting evidence that EDXRF Zn/Fe ratiometric analysis of EPF will provide a simple, rapid, direct, non-invasive, and highly accurate biomarker and procedure for the urology screening for prostate cancer.

Keywords: Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence; Expressed Prostatic Fluid; Prostate Cancer; Urology Screening; Zn/Fe Ratiometric Analysis.