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Observational Study
, 9 (1), e01176

Relation of Postoperative Serum S100A12 Levels to Delirium and Cognitive Dysfunction Occurring After Hip Fracture Surgery in Elderly Patients

Affiliations
Observational Study

Relation of Postoperative Serum S100A12 Levels to Delirium and Cognitive Dysfunction Occurring After Hip Fracture Surgery in Elderly Patients

Qing-Hua Li et al. Brain Behav.

Abstract

Objective: Brain injury is implicated in pathogenesis of postoperative delirium (POD) and cognitive dysfunction (POCD). S100A12 is involved in inflammatory process and is recently known as a biomarker for brain injury. Herein, we clarified whether serum S100A12 levels are related to POD and POCD after hip fracture surgery in elderly patients.

Materials and methods: In this prospective, observational study, we gauged S100A12 levels in preoperative and postoperative serum from 186 patients and serum from 186 controls. Patients were categorized according to the presence of POD and POCD.

Results: Postoperative, but not preoperative serum S100A12 levels were significantly higher in patients than in controls. There was a positive and independent correlation between postoperative C-reactive protein and S100A12 levels (t = 8.797, p < 0.001). Postoperative S10012 levels and age were independently associated with the risk of developing POD (S100A12 levels: odds ratio [OR] = 1.166, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.045-2.087, p = 0.001; age: OR = 1.243, 95% CI = 1.073-1.419, p = 0.012) and POCD (S100A12: OR = 1.157, 95% CI = 1.030-1.986, p = 0.003; age: OR = 1.228, 95% CI = 1.054-1.387, p = 0.014). In terms of area under receiver operating characteristic curve, postoperative S100A12 levels had a higher predictive ability than age and their combination dramatically exceeded that of each one alone.

Conclusions: Postoperative elevated serum S100A12 levels have a strong relation to inflammation and are associated independently with the development of POD and POCD, substantializing serum S100A12 as a potential biomarker for predicting POD and POCD in elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery.

Keywords: S100A12; cognitive dysfunction; delirium; elderly; hip fracture; postoperative.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Comparisons of serum S100A12 levels between the controls and the patients, between the patients with postoperative delirium (POD) and those without POD, as well as between the patients with postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and those without POCD. This figure shows that there was not statistically significant difference between preoperative serum S100A12 levels of patients and serum S100A12 levels of controls; as compared with preoperative S100A12 levels in patients, postoperative S100A12 levels were significantly elevated in patients; consistently, postoperative S100A12 levels in patients were significantly higher than those in controls; alternatively, serum S100A12 levels were significantly higher in POD patients than in patients without POD as well as in POCD patients than in non‐POCD patients
Figure 2
Figure 2
Relationship between postoperative serum S100A12 levels and serum C‐reactive protein levels in elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. Just as depicted in this Figure, postoperative serum S100A12 levels were significantly correlated with serum C‐reactive protein levels
Figure 3
Figure 3
Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of postoperative serum S100A12 levels for discriminating postoperative delirium (a) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (b) in elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. Just as portrayed in this Figure, an optimal value of serum S100A12 levels determined postoperatively was selected, which distinguished patients developing postoperative delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction with the corresponding sensitivity and specificity values

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