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Review
. 2019 Jan;21(1):e3065.
doi: 10.1002/jgm.3065. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Long Non-Coding RNAs in Cancer: Another Layer of Complexity

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Review

Long Non-Coding RNAs in Cancer: Another Layer of Complexity

Jaqueline Carvalho de Oliveira et al. J Gene Med. .

Abstract

We review the most well characterized long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) with important roles in hallmarks of cancer, additionally including lncRNAs with a higher potential for clinical application. LncRNAs are transcripts larger than 200 nucleotides in length that do not appear to have protein-coding potential, although some of those may produce small functional peptides. These transcripts have attracted significant attention from researchers as a result of their role in genetic regulation, including epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation, being involved in numerous biological processes, as well as being associated with multifactorial diseases, including tumorigenesis. The hallmarks of cancer include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis and activating invasion/metastasis. Additionally, genome instability, inflammation, reprogramming of energy metabolism and evading immune destruction and lncRNAs are implicated in all hallmarks of cancer. Based on the great number of studies describing lncRNAs associated with diverse aspects of most tumor types, lncRNAs have essential roles in potentially all biological features of cancer cells and show great utility as diagnostic and prognostic markers, as exemplified by PCA3 lncRNA detection in prostate cancer diagnosis.

Keywords: biomarkers; cancer; lncRNA; tumorigenesis.

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