Bread Consumption Is Associated with Elevated Blood Pressure among Adults Living in Mexico City⁻A Sub-Analysis of the Tlalpan 2020 Study

Nutrients. 2018 Dec 13;10(12):1969. doi: 10.3390/nu10121969.


Excessive dietary sodium is associated with elevated blood pressure (EBP). Bread products are identified as one of the main sources of daily sodium intake. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between bread and others cereal products consumption with EBP. Frequency intake of a standard serving of bread and other cereal products was recorded and categorized as: ≤3 times/month or never (reference category group) and ≥ once/week. EBP was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥120 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥80 mmHg. Raw and adjusted odds ratios (OR) for the association between consumption of the studied food products and blood pressure status were estimated. Overall, 2011 participants aged 37.3 ± 9.1 years old were included. In the models adjusted for relevant covariates, consumption of one piece of bolillo or telera (OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.01⁻1.89) ≥ once/week was associated with an increased risk of EBP, compared to the reference category. Also, participants consuming one bowl of high-fiber breakfast cereal once/week were less likely to have EBP (OR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.53⁻0.98). Initiatives to reduce sodium levels in bread products such as bolillo and telera are needed in Mexico to help manage the cardiovascular risk at the population level.

Keywords: Mexican population; bread consumption; elevated blood pressure; sodium intake.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Bread* / analysis
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diet Surveys
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology*
  • Hypertension / etiology*
  • Male
  • Mexico / epidemiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Risk Factors
  • Sodium, Dietary / administration & dosage
  • Sodium, Dietary / adverse effects


  • Sodium, Dietary