Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 10 (12)

Bread Consumption Is Associated With Elevated Blood Pressure Among Adults Living in Mexico City⁻A Sub-Analysis of the Tlalpan 2020 Study


Bread Consumption Is Associated With Elevated Blood Pressure Among Adults Living in Mexico City⁻A Sub-Analysis of the Tlalpan 2020 Study

Xochitl Ponce-Martínez et al. Nutrients.


Excessive dietary sodium is associated with elevated blood pressure (EBP). Bread products are identified as one of the main sources of daily sodium intake. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between bread and others cereal products consumption with EBP. Frequency intake of a standard serving of bread and other cereal products was recorded and categorized as: ≤3 times/month or never (reference category group) and ≥ once/week. EBP was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥120 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥80 mmHg. Raw and adjusted odds ratios (OR) for the association between consumption of the studied food products and blood pressure status were estimated. Overall, 2011 participants aged 37.3 ± 9.1 years old were included. In the models adjusted for relevant covariates, consumption of one piece of bolillo or telera (OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.01⁻1.89) ≥ once/week was associated with an increased risk of EBP, compared to the reference category. Also, participants consuming one bowl of high-fiber breakfast cereal once/week were less likely to have EBP (OR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.53⁻0.98). Initiatives to reduce sodium levels in bread products such as bolillo and telera are needed in Mexico to help manage the cardiovascular risk at the population level.

Keywords: Mexican population; bread consumption; elevated blood pressure; sodium intake.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Participants flow chart.

Similar articles

See all similar articles


    1. Rahimi K., Emdin C.A., MacMahon S. The epidemiology of blood pressure and its worldwide management. Circ. Res. 2015;116:925–936. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.304723. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2016: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet. 2017;390:1345–1422. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32366-8. - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Mills K.T., Bundy J.D., Kelly T.N., Reed J.E., Kearney P.M., Reynolds K., Chen J., He J. Global Disparities of Hypertension Prevalence and Control: A Systematic Analysis of Population-Based Studies From 90 Countries. Circulation. 2016;134:441–450. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.018912. - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Campos-Nonato I., Hernandez-Barrera L., Rojas-Martinez R., Pedroza A., Medina-Garcia C., Barquera-Cervera S. Hypertension: Prevalence, early diagnosis, control and trends in Mexican adults. Salud Publica de Mexico. 2013;55:S144–S150. doi: 10.21149/spm.v55s2.5110. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Whelton P.K., Appel L.J., Sacco R.L., Anderson C.A., Antman E.M., Campbell N., Dunbar S.B., Frohlich E.D., Hall J.E., Jessup M., et al. Sodium, blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease: Further evidence supporting the American Heart Association sodium reduction recommendations. Circulation. 2012;126:2880–2889. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0b013e318279acbf. - DOI - PubMed