Urban blue space and health and wellbeing in Hong Kong: Results from a survey of older adults

Health Place. 2019 Jan:55:100-110. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2018.11.003. Epub 2018 Dec 11.


The potential benefits of aquatic environments for public health have been understudied in Asia. We investigated the relationships between blue space exposures and health outcomes among a sample of predominantly older adults in Hong Kong. Those with a view of blue space from the home were more likely to report good general health, while intentional exposure was linked to greater odds of high wellbeing. Visiting blue space regularly was more likely for those within a 10-15 min walk, and who believed visit locations had good facilities and wildlife present. Longer blue space visits, and those involving higher intensity activities, were associated with higher recalled wellbeing. Our evidence suggests that, at least for older citizens, Hong Kong's blue spaces could be an important public health resource.

Keywords: Blue space; Health and wellbeing; Hong Kong; Public health; Urban design.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Diagnostic Self Evaluation*
  • Environment Design*
  • Hong Kong
  • Humans
  • Lakes*
  • Oceans and Seas*
  • Parks, Recreational / statistics & numerical data
  • Public Health*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires