Intracerebral venous hemorrhage in "high-risk" carotid-cavernous fistula

Surg Neurol. 1988 Nov;30(5):387-90. doi: 10.1016/0090-3019(88)90202-9.


Intracerebral hematoma associated with carotid-cavernous fistula is a rare occurrence. Based on a review of the literature and on the analysis of personal observation, the authors define as "high-risk fistula" a carotid-cavernous fistula at risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Characteristic features of these are computed tomography demonstration of parenchymal vermicular enhancement of brain vessels, and an angiographic pattern of dilated and tortuous cerebral veins. When an intracerebral hemorrhage occurs in a patient with carotid-cavernous fistula an early but phased and combined neuroradiological-neurosurgical approach is suggested as the best way to treat this life-threatening situation.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Arteriovenous Fistula / complications*
  • Arteriovenous Fistula / diagnostic imaging
  • Arteriovenous Fistula / surgery
  • Brain Injuries / complications
  • Carotid Arteries* / diagnostic imaging
  • Cavernous Sinus* / diagnostic imaging
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology*
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / surgery
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Risk Factors
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed