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. 2018 Mar 26;7:374.
doi: 10.12688/f1000research.14153.1. eCollection 2018.

Preliminary Evidence That Hydrostatic Edema May Contribute to the Formation of Diffuse Alveolar Damage in a Holstein Calf Model

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Free PMC article

Preliminary Evidence That Hydrostatic Edema May Contribute to the Formation of Diffuse Alveolar Damage in a Holstein Calf Model

Joseph M Neary et al. F1000Res. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: Two notable findings of clinically healthy feedlot cattle suggest they may have pulmonary hydrostatic edema during the finishing phase of production: increased pulmonary arterial wedge pressures and pulmonary venous hypertrophy. The goal of this study was to determine if increased pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (PAWP) in a Holstein calf could lead to diffuse alveolar damage consistent with the early, exudative phase of acute interstitial pneumonia of feedlot cattle. Methods: Six male Holstein dairy calves were given daily subcutaneous injections of the nonspecific ß-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline (10 mg/kg/d), to induce left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, or sterile water for 14 days. On Day 14, pulmonary arterial pressures and wedge pressures were measured, echocardiography performed, and the ratio of mitral valve flow velocity (E) to septal lengthening velocity (e') calculated. Calves were euthanized on Day 15 and lung lesions semi-quantitatively scored. Results: Mean PAWP was 12 ± 1 mm Hg in calves that received isoprenaline and 7 ± 1 mm Hg in controls ( P = 0.01). Calves that received isoprenaline tended to have greater relative wall thickness than control calves ( P = 0.15) and greater E/e' ratios ( P = 0.16), suggestive of concentric hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction, respectively. Calves that received isoprenaline also tended to have a left ventricle and interventricular septum that was 29 ± 10 g heavier than control calves ( P = 0.10) when controlling for body mass. Hyaline membranes, the hallmark feature of diffuse alveolar damage, were evident in lung sections from all calves that received isoprenaline but none of the controls. Conclusions: Consistent with prior pathological and physiological studies of feedlot cattle, this study provides preliminary evidence that cattle presenting with clinical signs and pathology consistent with early stage acute interstitial pneumonia could be attributable to hydrostatic edema associated with left ventricular failure.

Keywords: acute respiratory distress syndrome; congestive heart failure; hypertension; left ventricle; pneumonia.

Conflict of interest statement

No competing interests were disclosed.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.. Lungs and pulmonary histology of male intact Holstein calves after 14 days of receiving the nonspecific ß-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline (10 mg/kg/d sid) (Calf 2) or equivalent volume of sterile water (0.2 mL/kg) (Calf 3).
Masson’s trichrome. Scale bar = 0.25 mm.

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References

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The author(s) declared that no grants were involved in supporting this work.
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