Objective: Several nutritional strategies for the management of psoriasis are promising. Even if recent data support that nutrition may play a pivotal role in prevention and co-treatment and despite patient's concerns regarding the best nutritional habits, the consensus regarding the nutritional strategies to be adopted lacks in clinical settings. In this manuscript, the effects of several nutritional strategies for psoriasis patients such as hypocaloric diet, vitamin D, fish oil, selenium, and zinc supplementation were systematically reviewed. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on beneficial botanical oral supplements were also included in the analysis.
Materials and methods: For each topic, a search was conducted in MEDLINE electronic databases for articles published in English between January 1, 1990 and September 2018. Two independent reviewers assessed and extracted the data. Only controlled clinical trials were selected.
Results: The evidence regarding the current nutritional strategies for psoriasis patients were summarized and translated into a global, comprehensible recommendation.
Conclusions: Weight loss combined with a healthy lifestyle was shown to be very beneficial for patients with moderate to severe disease with a significant reduction of the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score. Currently, oral vitamin D supplementation for prevention or treatment of psoriasis in adults with normal vitamin D levels is not recommended; however, psoriasis patients with a deficit in plasma vitamin D levels are advised to complement with oral supplements to prevent psoriasis-related comorbidities. Instead of zinc, selenium, and omega 3 supplements have been proven beneficial for psoriasis patients. Among botanical species, Dunaliella bardawil (D. bardawil), Tripterygium wilfordii (T. wilfordii), Azadirachta indica (A. indica), Curcuma longa (C. longa), and HESA-A are the most beneficial. In conclusion, a close cooperation between nutritionists and dermatologists may be useful for the management of psoriasis.