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Serum Nutrient Levels and Aging Effects on Periodontitis

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Serum Nutrient Levels and Aging Effects on Periodontitis

Jeffrey L Ebersole et al. Nutrients.

Abstract

Periodontal disease damages tissues as a result of dysregulated host responses against the chronic bacterial biofilm insult and approximately 50% of US adults >30 years old exhibit periodontitis. The association of five blood nutrients and periodontitis were evaluated due to our previous findings regarding a potential protective effect for these nutrients in periodontal disease derived from the US population sampled as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999⁻2004). Data from over 15,000 subjects was analyzed for blood levels of cis-β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, folate, vitamin D, and vitamin E, linked with analysis of the presence and severity of periodontitis. Moderate/severe disease patients had lower cis-β-carotene levels across all racial/ethnic groups and these decreased levels in moderate/severe periodontitis were exacerbated with age. β-cryptoxanthin demonstrated lower levels in severe disease patients across the entire age range in all racial/ethnic groups. Folate differences were evident across the various age groups with consistently lower levels in periodontitis patients >30 years and most pronounced in females. Lower levels of vitamin D were consistently noted across the entire age range of patients with a greater difference seen in females with periodontitis. Finally, an analytical approach to identify interactions among these nutrients related to age and periodontitis showed interactions of vitamin D in females, and folate with race in the population. These findings suggest that improving specific nutrient intake leading to elevated blood levels of a combination of these protective factors may provide a novel strategy to affect the significant increase in periodontitis that occurs with aging.

Keywords: aging; nutrients; periodontitis.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors state no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Levels of cis-β-carotene (µg/dL) in subjects with or without periodontitis stratified upon sex (A), age (B), disease severity (C), disease severity and age (D), race/ethnicity (E), disease severity and sex (F), and disease severity in smokers (G). The bars denote group means and the vertical brackets enclose 1 standared error of the mena (SEM). The asterisk (*) denotes significantly different than the normal group at p < 0.05.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Levels of β-cryptoxanthin in subjects with or without periodontitis stratified upon sex (A), age (B), disease severity (C), disease severity and age (D), race/ethnicity (E), disease severity and sex (F), and disease severity in smokers (G). The bars denote group means and the vertical brackets enclose 1 SEM. The asterisk (*) denotes significantly different that other group(s) at p < 0.05.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Levels of folate (g/mL) in subjects with or without periodontitis stratified upon sex (A), age (B), disease severity (C), disease severity and age (D), race/ethnicity (E), disease severity and sex (F), and disease severity in smokers (G). The bars denote group means and the vertical brackets enclose 1 SEM. The asterisk (*) denotes significantly different than the normal group at p < 0.05.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Levels of vitamin D (ng/mL) in subjects with or without periodontitis stratified upon sex (A), age (B), disease severity (C), disease severity and age (D), race/ethnicity (E), disease severity and sex (F), and disease severity in smokers (G). The bars denote group means and the vertical brackets enclose 1 SEM. The asterisk (*) denotes significantly different than the normal group at p < 0.05.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Levels of vitamin E (µg/dL) in subjects with or without periodontitis stratified upon sex (A), age (B), disease severity (C), disease severity and age (D), race/ethnicity (E), disease severity and sex (F), and disease severity in smokers (G). The bars denote group means and the vertical brackets enclose 1 SEM. The asterisk (*) denotes significantly different than the normal group at p < 0.05.

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