Background: Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GAMOS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the combination of glomerulopathy with early-onset nephrotic syndrome and microcephaly with central nervous system anomalies. Given its clinical heterogeneity, GAMOS is believed to be a genetically heterogenous group of disorders. Recently, it has been reported that mutations in KEOPS-encoding genes, including the OSGEP gene, were responsible for GAMOS.
Results: Overall, 6 patients from 5 different Taiwanese families were included in our study; the patients had an identical OSGEP gene mutation (c.740G > A transition) and all exhibited a uniform clinical phenotype with early-onset nephrotic syndrome, craniofacial and skeletal dysmorphism, primary microcephaly with pachygyria, and death before 2 years of age. We reviewed their clinical manifestations, the prenatal and postnatal presentations and ultrasound findings, results of imaging studies, associated anomalies, and outcome on follow-up. All individuals were found to have an "aged face" comprising peculiar facial dysmorphisms. Arachnodactyly or camptodactyly were noted in all patients. Neurological findings consisted of microcephaly, hypotonia, developmental delay, and seizures. Brain imaging studies all showed pachygyria and hypomyelination. All patients developed early-onset nephrotic syndrome. The proteinuria was steroid-resistant and eventually resulted in renal function impairment. Prenatal ultrasound findings included microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction, and oligohydramnios. Fetal MRI in 2 patients confirmed the gyral and myelin abnormalities.
Conclusions: Our study suggests that a careful review of the facial features can provide useful clues for an early and accurate diagnosis. Prenatal ultrasound findings, fetal MRI, genetic counseling, and mutation analysis may be useful for an early prenatal diagnosis.
Keywords: Arachnodactyly; Camptodactyly; Galloway-Mowat syndrome; Hypomyelination; KEOPS; Microcephaly; Nephrotic syndrome; OSGEP; Pachygyria; Prenatal findings.