Tissue-resident memory CD8+ T cells (TRMs) confer rapid protection and immunity against viral infections. Many viruses have evolved mechanisms to inhibit MHCI presentation in order to evade CD8+ T cells, suggesting that these mechanisms may also apply to TRM-mediated protection. However, the effects of viral MHCI inhibition on the function and generation of TRMs is unclear. Herein, we demonstrate that viral MHCI inhibition reduces the abundance of CD4+ and CD8+ TRMs, but its effects on the local microenvironment compensate to promote antigen-specific CD8+ TRM formation. Unexpectedly, local cognate antigen enhances CD8+ TRM development even in the context of viral MHCI inhibition and CD8+ T cell evasion, strongly suggesting a role for in situ cross-presentation in local antigen-driven TRM differentiation. However, local cognate antigen is not required for CD8+ TRM maintenance. We also show that viral MHCI inhibition efficiently evades CD8+ TRM effector functions. These findings indicate that viral evasion of MHCI antigen presentation has consequences on the development and response of antiviral TRMs.
© 2018 Lauron et al.