Background: The benign call rate (BCR) is the percentage of cytomorphologically indeterminate cases with subsequent benign or negative molecular results. For rule-out tests, the BCR is an important parameter because these molecular "negative" cases may be managed similarly to those with a benign cytology diagnosis. Although earlier versions of ThyroSeq molecular tests were less effective in excluding malignancy, the extensively expanded v3 version with a high negative predictive value is considered to represent a rule-out test. In the current study, the authors evaluated the BCR and the overall molecular result distribution of ThyroSeq v3.
Methods: All indeterminate thyroid fine-needle aspiration cases (except those deemed suspicious for malignancy) with available ThyroSeq v3 results from November 2017 to June 2018 were retrieved from the cytopathology files. Because the ThyroSeq v3 genomic classifier was designed for thyroid follicular-derived lesions, cases in which parathyroid and medullary carcinoma molecular markers were detected and those that were inadequate or limited for molecular testing were excluded from the study. For the remaining cases, the indeterminate diagnoses were correlated with molecular and histologic results.
Results: Among the 224 indeterminate cases (except those deemed suspicious for malignancy), the overall ThyroSeq v3 molecular test BCR was 74.1% (166 of 224 cases). The category of atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) had higher BCRs compared with the other indeterminate diagnostic categories. RAS mutations were the most common positive results.
Conclusions: The high BCR demonstrates that ThyroSeq v3 is potentially effective in sparing the large majority of indeterminate cases with "negative" results from surgery while offering risk assessment for the positive cases and guiding clinical management.
Keywords: ThyroSeq; benign call rate; molecular testing; rule-out test; thyroid.
© 2018 American Cancer Society.