A Wake-Up Call: We Need Phage Therapy Now

Viruses. 2018 Dec 5;10(12):688. doi: 10.3390/v10120688.


The rise of multidrug-resistant bacteria has resulted in an increased interest in phage therapy, which historically preceded antibiotic treatment against bacterial infections. To date, there have been no reports of serious adverse events caused by phages. They have been successfully used to cure human diseases in Eastern Europe for many decades. More recently, clinical trials and case reports for a variety of indications have shown promising results. However, major hurdles to the introduction of phage therapy in the Western world are the regulatory and legal frameworks. Present regulations may take a decade or longer to be fulfilled. It is of urgent need to speed up the availability of phage therapy.

Keywords: Helsinki declaration; magistral preparation; phage therapy; phages; regulation.

Publication types

  • Historical Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Bacterial Infections / therapy*
  • Bacteriophages / physiology
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Fecal Microbiota Transplantation
  • History, 20th Century
  • History, 21st Century
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Phage Therapy / adverse effects
  • Phage Therapy / history
  • Phage Therapy / methods*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents