Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Tuberculosis (TB) are the double burden diseases of the world. The African continent takes a great share of TB-HIV cases worldwide. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of TB-HIV co-infection in Ethiopia, using a meta-analysis based on a systematic review of published articles.
Methods: An electronic search was conducted in databases including PubMed, HINARI, EMBASE, Cochrane library and Google Scholar to extract the articles. Articles published between 1995 and November 2017 had been searched for using different keywords. The analysis was performed using MetaXL software and R statistical software (version 3.2.3).
Result: Our searches returned a total of (n = 26,746) records from 30 articles of which 21 were cross-sectional, 7 were retrospectives and 2 were prospective studies. The range of prevalence of TB-HIV co-infection was found to be from 6 to 52.1% with random effects pooled prevalence of 22% (95% CI 19-24%) and with substantial heterogeneity chi-square (X2) = 746.0, p < 0.001, (I2 = 95.84%).
Conclusion: Our analysis indicated that the prevalence of TB-HIV co-infection is high in Ethiopia with substantial regional variation. An integrated, facility-based and community-based effort towards the prevention, early detection and management of cases should be further strengthened throughout the country to mitigate the double burden disease.
Keywords: Co-infection; Human immunodeficiency virus; Meta-analysis; Prevalence; Tuberculosis.