Clofarabine/busulfan-based reduced intensity conditioning regimens provides very good survivals in acute myeloid leukemia patients in complete remission at transplant: a retrospective study on behalf of the SFGM-TC

Oncotarget. 2018 Nov 27;9(93):36603-36612. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.26391.


Background: Clofarabine has been proved to have higher anti-leukemic myeloid activity compared to fludarabine, a drug extensively used as part of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) for allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT).

Results: Eighty-four patients were included. The majority of patients had acute myeloid leukemia (AML, n = 63). Sixty-one patients were in complete remission (AML n = 55). With a median follow up of 31 months (range: 5.7-74.1), 2-year overall (OS) and disease-free (DFS) survivals, relapse incidence (RI), non-relapse mortality (NRM) and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)/relapse free survival (GRFS) were 64.5% (53.8-75.2); 57.2% (46.2-68.2); 27.7% (18.2-37.9); 15.1% (8.2-23.9) and 43.6% (32.5-54.7), respectively. Considering AML in remission, 2-year OS, DFS, RI, NRM and GRFS were 74.2% (62-86.5); 66.8% (53.6-79.9); 23.4% (12.7-36); 9.8% (3.5-19.9) and 50.9% (36.9-64.9), respectively. Two-year outcomes were similar between CloB2A1 and CloB2A2 sub-groups. In multivariate analysis, active disease at transplant was the only factor adversely impacting 2 years outcomes.

Conclusions: CloB2A2/A1 RIC regimen provides very good results for AML patients allografted in CR and could be retained as a new RIC platform for these patients.

Materials and methods: This was a retrospective study including all patients who received a clofarabine/busulfan based RIC allo-SCT for myeloid malignancies and reported within the SFGM-TC registry. RIC regimen consisted of clofarabine 30 mg/m2/day 4 to 5 days (Clo), busulfan 3.2 mg/kg/day 2 days (B2) and 2.5 mg/kg/day of rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin 1 or 2 days (A1 or A2). The primary objective of the study was to report the main outcomes of the whole cohort at 2 years.

Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia; allogeneic stem cell transplantation; busulfan; clofarabine; reduced intensity conditioning regimen.