In the last decades, proteomics has been largely applied to the Nephrology field, with the double aim to (1) elucidate the biological processes underlying renal diseases; (2) identify disease-specific biomarkers, predictor factors of therapeutic efficacy and prognostic factors of disease progression. Kidney stone disease, and in particular, inherited nephrolithiasis (INL) are not an exception. Given the multifactorial origin of these disorders, the combination of genomics and proteomics studies may complement each other, with the final objective to give a global and comprehensive mechanistic view. In this review, we summarize the results of recent proteomic studies which have expanded our knowledge about INL, focusing the attention on monogenic forms of nephrolithiasis (cystinuria, Dent's disease, Bartter syndrome, distal renal tubular acidosis and primary hyperoxaluria), on polygenic hypercalciuria and on medullary sponge kidney disease.
Keywords: Biomarker; Genetic nephrolithiasis; Proteomics; Urine.