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. 2018 Dec 19;13(12):e0209307.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0209307. eCollection 2018.

Colorectal Cancer Survival Rates in Ghana: A Retrospective Hospital-Based Study

Free PMC article

Colorectal Cancer Survival Rates in Ghana: A Retrospective Hospital-Based Study

Francis Agyemang-Yeboah et al. PLoS One. .
Free PMC article


Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the commonest cancers associated with diverse prognosis times in different parts of the world. Despite medical interventions, the overall clinical outcomes and survival remains very poor for most patients in developing countries. This study therefore investigated the survival rate of colorectal cancer and its prognostic factors among patients at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Ghana.

Methodology: In this retrospective cohort study, a total of 221 patients diagnosed with CRC from 2009 to 2015 at the Surgical and Oncological units of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi, Ghana were employed. The survival graphs were obtained using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the Log-rank test. Cox regression analysis was used to assess prognostic factors. All analyses were performed by SPSS version 22.

Results: The median survival time was 15 months 95% CI (11.79-18.21). The overall survival rate for CRC over the 5 years period was 16.0%. The survival rates at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th years were 64% 95% CI (56.2-71.1), 40% 95% CI (32.2-50.1), 21% 95% CI (11.4-30.6) 16% 95% CI (8.9-26.9) and 16% 95% CI (7.3-24.9). There was a significant difference in the survival rate of colorectal cancer according to the different stages (p = 0.0001). Family history [HR = (3.44), p = 0.029)], Chemotherapy [HR = (0.23), p = <0.0001)], BMI [HR = (1.78), p = 0.017)] and both chemo/radiotherapy (HR = (3.63), p = 0.042)] were the significant social and clinical factors influencing the overall survival. Pathological factors such as TNM tumour stage (p = 0.012), depth of tumour invasion (p = 0.036), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.0001), and distance metastasis (p = 0.001) were significantly associated with overall survival.

Conclusion: The study has clearly demonstrated that survival rate for CRC patients at KATH, Ghana is very low in a 5 years period. This is influenced by significant number of clinical and pathological prognostic factors. Identification of prognostic factors would be a primary basis for early prediction and treatment of patients with colorectal cancer.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


Fig 1
Fig 1. Procedure for the selection of cases for the study.
Fig 2
Fig 2. Overall 5 year’s survival function curve in colorectal cancer patients at KATH.
Fig 3
Fig 3. Cumulative survival of CRC based on the cancer stage.

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