Numerous pharmacological agents have been shown to produce clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions with digoxin. Drugs which reduce digoxin absorption include the antacids aluminium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide and magnesium trisilicate, the antidiarrhoeals kaolin and pectin, the hypocholesterolaemic agent cholestyramine and the chemotoxins cyclophosphamide, vincristine and bleomycin. Certain antibiotics including sulphasalazine, neomycin and aminosalicylic acid reduce digoxin absorption while others, including erythromycin and tetracycline, increase the bioavailability of digoxin in some patients. Capsule preparations of digoxin in solution are less subject to several of the interactions which affect the absorption and bioavailability of digoxin tablets. Various drugs induce alterations in the volume of distribution and clearance of digoxin. Cardiac patients receiving digoxin therapy are particularly prone to interactions with commonly co-administered medications such as the antiarrhythmics quinidine and amiodarone, the calcium channel blockers verapamil and nifedipine, and possibly some vasodilating agents. Studies of digoxin interactions have yielded discrepant results, indicating the need for careful analysis of investigational design before arriving at clinical conclusions.