Home monitoring of sleep with a temporary-tattoo EEG, EOG and EMG electrode array: a feasibility study

J Neural Eng. 2019 Apr;16(2):026024. doi: 10.1088/1741-2552/aafa05. Epub 2018 Dec 19.


Objective: Circadian and sleep dysfunction have long been symptomatic hallmarks of a variety of devastating neurodegenerative conditions. The gold standard for sleep monitoring is overnight sleep in a polysomnography (PSG) laboratory. However, this method has several limitations such as availability, cost and being labour-intensive. In recent years there has been a heightened interest in home-based sleep monitoring via wearable sensors. Our objective was to demonstrate the use of printed electrode technology as a novel platform for sleep monitoring.

Approach: Printed electrode arrays offer exciting opportunities in the realm of wearable electrophysiology. In particular, soft electrodes can conform neatly to the wearer's skin, allowing user convenience and stable recordings. As such, soft skin-adhesive non-gel-based electrodes offer a unique opportunity to combine electroencephalography (EEG), electromyography (EMG), electrooculography (EOG) and facial EMG capabilities to capture neural and motor functions in comfortable non-laboratory settings. In this investigation temporary-tattoo dry electrode system for sleep staging analysis was designed, implemented and tested.

Main results: EMG, EOG and EEG were successfully recorded using a wireless system. Stable recordings were achieved both at a hospital environment and a home setting. Sleep monitoring during a 6 h session shows clear differentiation of sleep stages.

Significance: The new system has great potential in monitoring sleep disorders in the home environment. Specifically, it may allow the identification of disorders associated with neurological disorders such as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Electrodes
  • Electroencephalography / instrumentation
  • Electroencephalography / methods*
  • Electromyography / instrumentation
  • Electromyography / methods*
  • Electrooculography / instrumentation
  • Electrooculography / methods*
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Monitoring, Ambulatory / instrumentation
  • Monitoring, Ambulatory / methods
  • Polysomnography / instrumentation
  • Polysomnography / methods*
  • Sleep Stages / physiology*
  • Tattooing / instrumentation
  • Tattooing / methods*
  • Wearable Electronic Devices