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. 2018 Dec 18;19(12):4109.
doi: 10.3390/ijms19124109.

Types of Gastric Carcinomas

Free PMC article

Types of Gastric Carcinomas

Helge L Waldum et al. Int J Mol Sci. .
Free PMC article


Gastric cancer has reduced prevalence, but poor prognoses. To improve treatment, better knowledge of carcinogenesis and cells of origin should be sought. Stomach cancers are typically localized to one of the three mucosae; cardial, oxyntic and antral. Moreover, not only the stem cell, but the ECL cell may proliferate and give rise to tumours. According to Laurén, the classification of gastric carcinomas seems to reflect biological important differences and possible different cell of origin since the two subtypes, intestinal and diffuse, do not transform into the other and show different epidemiology. The stem cell probably gives rise to the intestinal type, whereas the ECL cell may be important in the diffuse type. Elevation of gastrin may be the carcinogenic factor for Helicobacter pylori as well as the recently described increased risk of gastric cancer due to proton pump inhibitor treatment. Therefore, it is essential to determine the role of the gastrin target cell, the ECL cell, in gastric carcinogenesis. Clinical trials with gastrin antagonists could improve prognoses in those with gastrin receptor positive tumours. However, further studies on gastric carcinomas applying relative available methods and with the highest sensitivity are warranted to improve our knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis.

Keywords: classification; gastric carcinoma; gastrin; neuroendocrine cells; types of gastric carcinomas.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have no conflict of interest.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Proposed carcinogenesis for gastric carcinoma of intestinal type (From ref 19 with permission [21]).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Proposed carcinogenesis for gastric carcinomas of diffuse type (From ref 78 with permission [82]).

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