Infantile Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis: An Epidemiological Review

Neonatal Netw. 2018 Jul;37(4):197-204. doi: 10.1891/0730-0832.37.4.197. Epub 2018 Jul 1.


Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is the most common gastrointestinal disease among infants. IHPS occurs as an isolated condition or together with other congenital anomalies. Association with genetic and environmental factors, bottle feeding, younger maternal age, maternal smoking, and erythromycin administration in the first two weeks of life has been shown. Familial aggregation has been described and a family history is seen in 47.9 percent of siblings. Infants typically present with projectile vomiting associated with symptoms of failure to thrive. An olive-like mass palpable in the right upper abdominal quadrant is being reported less frequently because of earlier diagnosis by ultrasound. IHPS is generally corrected through laparoscopic pyloromyotomy. Endoscopic pyloric balloon dilation is a novel alternative. Further studies on different populations, the general population, and familial segregation to determine the prevalence, influence, and mode of familial aggregation and correlation with environmental factors are needed to determine the etiology of IHPS.

Keywords: GI obstruction; IHPS; anatomic pathology; epidemiology; incidence; risk factors.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Curriculum
  • Education, Nursing, Continuing*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neonatal Nursing / standards*
  • Nurses, Neonatal / education*
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic*
  • Pyloric Stenosis, Hypertrophic / epidemiology
  • Pyloric Stenosis, Hypertrophic / nursing*
  • Pyloric Stenosis, Hypertrophic / physiopathology*
  • United States / epidemiology