Paraoxonase 1 in endothelial cells impairs vasodilation induced by arachidonic acid lactone metabolite

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2019 Mar;1864(3):386-393. doi: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2018.12.008. Epub 2018 Dec 17.


Introduction: Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated lactonase, which is known for its antiatherogenic properties. Previous studies in PON1 knockout (PON1KO) mice revealed that PON1KO mice have low blood pressure, which is inversely correlated with the renal levels of the cytochrome P450 -derived arachidonic acid metabolite 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (5,6-EET). Our previous studies revealed that 5,6-EET is unstable, transforming to the δ-lactone isomer 5,6-δ-DHTL, an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) that mediates vasodilation, and it is a potential substrate for PON1.

Aim: To elucidate the role of PON1 in the modulation of vascular resistance via the regulation of the lactone-containing metabolite 5,6-δ-DHTL.

Results: In mouse resistance arteries, PON1 was found to be present and active in the endothelial layer. Vascular reactivity experiments revealed that 5,6-δ-DHTL dose-dependently dilates PON1KO mouse mesenteric arteries significantly more than wild type (w.t.) resistance arteries. Pre-incubation with HDL or rePON1 reduced 5,6-δ-DHTL-dependent vasodilation. FACS analyses and confocal microscopy experiments revealed that fluorescence-tagged rePON1 penetrates into human endothelial cells' (ECs') in both dose- and time- dependent manner, accumulate in the perinuclear compartment, and retains its lactonase activity in the cells. The presence of rePON1, but not the presence of PON1 loss-of-lactonase-activity mutant, reduced the Ca2+ influx in the ECs mediated by 5,6-δ-DHTL.

Conclusion: PON1 lactonase activity in the endothelium affects vascular dilation by regulating Ca2+ influx mediated by the lactone-containing EDHF 5,6-δ-DHTL.

Keywords: 5,6 δ-DHTL; Endothelial cells; Lactones; PON1; Vasodilation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Arachidonic Acid / metabolism
  • Aryldialkylphosphatase / genetics
  • Aryldialkylphosphatase / metabolism*
  • Aryldialkylphosphatase / physiology*
  • Biological Factors / physiology
  • Endothelial Cells / metabolism
  • Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
  • Humans
  • Hypotension
  • Lactones / metabolism
  • Lactones / pharmacology
  • Lipoproteins, HDL / metabolism
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Vasodilation / physiology*


  • Biological Factors
  • Lactones
  • Lipoproteins, HDL
  • endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization factor
  • Arachidonic Acid
  • Aryldialkylphosphatase
  • PON1 protein, human