Transurethral procedures in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of effectiveness and complications

Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Dec;97(51):e13360. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000013360.


Background: With the progress of surgical techniques and instruments, various minimally invasive surgical therapies were developed to treat benign prostatic hyperplasisa (BPH). However, the efficacy and safety of different transurethral procedures for the treatment of BPH are still undefined.

Method: A systematic search was performed for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which compared the transurethral procedures for BPH from 1995 to 2016. The clinical baseline characteristics, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL), postvoid residual (PVR), maximum flow rate (Qmax), short-term and long-term complications were analyzed using RevMan and ADDIS software.

Result: Eighty-eight randomly controlled trials and fifteen procedures were included in the network meta-analysis. HoLEP greatly inproved PVR. TmLRP had the best efficacy in improving QoL score. Diode laser vaporization of prostate was superior in improving IPSS and Qmax. Diode laser through vaporization required the shortest time in catheterization, while Nd:YAG was the longest procedure. For the hospitalization time, TUR was the longest and HoLEP was the shortest. TmLRP was related to the lowest postoperative hemoglobin decrease. TmLEP had the least rates of occurrence of hematuria, reoperation and erectile dysfunction. HoLEP was the best choice to reduce the incidence of recatheterization, urinary retention, urinary tract infection, stress urinary incontinence and retrograde ejaculation. The complications such as blood transfusion, urethral stricture, bladder neck contracture were relatively rare in the patients who underwent diode laser vaporization of prostate.

Conclusion: Compared with other transurethral procedures, thulium, holmium and diode lasers were associated with better efficacy and fewer complications.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Male
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / surgery*
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Transurethral Resection of Prostate* / methods