Background: The co-existence of allergic rhinitis (AR) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common phenomenon in clinical practice. AR has long been considered a risk factor for OSA. However, the relationship is not completely clear. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the prevalence of AR in sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) /OSA and their relationship.
Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed in PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, Wiley Online Library, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Data were analyzed and pooled to estimate effect size (ES) /odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Heterogeneity was quantified and evaluated by chi-squared-based Q-test and I2 test, with P < .05 and I > 50% indicating evidence of heterogeneity.
Results: 44 studies contained 6086 participants were included in this meta-analysis. For adults, the prevalence of AR was 22.8 (95% CI, 15.0-30.6) % in SDB and 35.2 (95% CI, 25.6-44.7) % in OSA. In children with SDB and OSA, the prevalence of AR was 40.8 (95% CI, 24.3-57.2) %, and 45.2 (95% CI, 25.4-65.0) % respectively. The odds ratios of prevalence of the SDB pediatric patients with AR was 2.12 (95%CI, 1.75, 2.57; P < .0001) times higher than that of non-SDB pediatric patients. There were no significant differences between OSA adults with or without AR in BMI (Body Mass Index), neck circumference, apnea hypopnea index (AHI) and epworth sleep scale score (ESS).
Conclusion: The prevalence of AR in OSA/SDB is considerably high and children with SDB suffering from a higher incidence of AR than non-SDB. OSA adults accompanied with AR do not have any influences on sleep parameters.