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Social Function of Adult Men With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Context of Military Service

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Social Function of Adult Men With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Context of Military Service

Gi Moon Noh et al. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat.

Abstract

Purpose: This study examined the characteristics of adult men with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on social outcomes with particular focus on social function in the context of military service.

Subjects and methods: Eighty-nine adult male outpatients diagnosed with ADHD in adulthood were included in this retrospective chart review study. Participants were divided into two groups: "military service group (MS)" (those who had completed military duty) and "nonmilitary service group (NMS)" (those who were exempted from conscription or engaged in public service). MS included 50 subjects and NMS included 39 subjects. The age at first ADHD diagnosis, intelligence quotient (IQ), occupation, and psychiatric comorbidities were compared between the two groups.

Results: The age at first diagnosis, IQ, and number of employed participants were significantly higher in MS than in NMS. NMS had significantly more psychiatric comorbidities than those in MS. In both groups, depression was the most common psychiatric comorbidity. Logistic regression analysis showed that the subjects' IQ, psychiatric comorbidity, and age at first diagnosis were determinants of military duty completion.

Conclusion: The results strongly suggested that IQ and psychiatric comorbidities are the most crucial factors affecting military service in male adults with ADHD, independent of ADHD.

Keywords: ADHD; army; mandatory; occupation.

Conflict of interest statement

Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest related to this work.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Distribution of occupations by skill level in the MS and NMS groups. Notes: Frequency (%) according to job types compared between MS (gray) and NMS (black). The skill levels are defined as follows: a. professionals; b. managers; c. technicians and associate professors; d. clerical support workers; e. services and sales workers; f. skilled agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers; g. plant and machine operators, and assemblers; h. elementary occupations; i. unemployment; and j. students; *P<0.05 with Fisher’s exact test. Abbreviations: MS, military service; NMS, nonmilitary service; NOS, not otherwise specified.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Comorbid psychiatric disorders in the MS and NMS groups. Notes: (A) Frequency (%) of no comorbidity compared between MS (I) and NMS (II); (B) frequency (%) according to various types of comorbidity psychiatric disorders compared between MS (gray) and NMS (black). 1. depression; 2. anxiety disorder; 3. bipolar disorder; 4. Tic disorder; 5. habit/impulse control disorder; 6. sleep disorder; 7. substance use disorder; 8. personality disorder; 9. psychoticism; 10. stress-related disorder; 11. somatoform disorder; 12. autism spectrum disorder; 13. mental retardation; 14. conduct disorder; 15. other neurotic disorder; 16. mental disorder NOS. *P<0.05; **P<0.01 was considered statistically significant with Fisher’s exact test. Abbreviations: MS, military service; NMS, nonmilitary service; NOS, not otherwise specified.

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