The results of 62 repeat penetrating keratoplasties (41 eyes) over a 10-year period are presented. The common indications for the primary graft include herpes simplex keratitis, pseudophakic bullous keratopathy, aphakic bullous keratopathy, Fuch's endothelial dystrophy, and chronic ulceration. All cases of pseudophakic bullous keratopathy had the iris-clip type of intraocular lens. Graft failure was attributed to rejection, endothelial failure, recurrent ulceration, herpes simplex keratitis, melting, trauma, and recurrent dystrophy. At the end of the study period 28 grafts (68%) were clear and 13 (32%) were opaque. Visual improvement occurred in 28 eyes (68%), deterioration in four (10%), and six (15%) remained unchanged (visual result was not available in three eyes). These data are encouraging in terms of visual outcome and graft clarity in cases of repeat penetrating keratoplasty. Comparison is made between the primary indications and outcome of these re-grafts and eyes requiring only one graft. Initial indications for grafting in both groups were similar, other than keratoconus, which was a significantly more common indication in eyes that required only one graft. Final visual results were better in those eyes undergoing only one graft, compared with those that required multiple surgery.