Background: Diffuse esophageal leiomyomatosis (DEL) is a rare disorder characterized by benign hypertrophy of esophageal smooth muscle cells. No rigorous summary of available evidence on how to best manage these patients exists.
Objective: To define the clinical features and outcomes of pediatric patients with DEL.
Materials and methods: A systematic literature search of the PubMed and Cochrane databases was performed with respect to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement (end-of-search date: October 6, 2018). The algorithm: "esophageal leiomyomatosis AND (children OR pediatric*)" was implemented.
Results: Thirty-five studies including a total of 58 patients were analyzed. The female:male ratio was 1.45:1. Mean patient age was 8.54 ± 4.67 years. The most common disease manifestations were dysphagia and gastrointestinal symptoms (90.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 78.2-96.1), followed by failure to thrive (57.9%, 95% CI: 36.2-76.9) and pulmonary symptoms (56.4%, 95% CI: 41.0-70.7). Alport syndrome (AS) was seen in 57.7% (95% CI: 44.2-70.1) of the patients. The most commonly implemented procedure was esophagectomy (85.2%; n = 46/54; 95% CI: 73.1-92.6) with gastric transposition (37.8%; n = 17/45; 95% CI: 25.1-52.4). Postoperative complications developed in 33.3% (n = 15/45; 95% CI: 21.3-48) of the patients. All-cause mortality was 7.0% (95% CI: 2.3-17.2) and disease-specific mortality was 3.5% (95% CI: 0.3-12.6).
Conclusion: DEL is an uncommon condition that typically occurs in the setting of AS. Esophagectomy with gastric transposition is the mainstay of treatment. Although complications develop in one-third of the patients, mortality rates are low.
Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.