The purpose of this article is to review conventional and advanced neuroimaging techniques performed in the setting of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The primary goal for the treatment of patients with suspected TBI is to prevent secondary injury. In the setting of a moderate to severe TBI, the most appropriate initial neuroimaging examination is a noncontrast head computed tomography (CT), which can reveal life-threatening injuries and direct emergent neurosurgical intervention. We will focus much of the article on advanced neuroimaging techniques including perfusion imaging and diffusion tensor imaging and discuss their potentials and challenges. We believe that advanced neuroimaging techniques may improve the accuracy of diagnosis of TBI and improve management of TBI.
Keywords: TBI; concussion; diffusion tensor imaging; perfusion imaging; traumatic brain injury.