Widening the landscape of heritable pulmonary hypertension mutations in paediatric and adult cases

Eur Respir J. 2019 Mar 14;53(3):1801371. doi: 10.1183/13993003.01371-2018. Print 2019 Mar.


Background: Heritable forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease/pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis (PVOD/PCH) diverge by lung histopathological lesions, clinical and para-clinical presentation, their responsible genes, and mode of transmission. Since the identification of the BMPR2 gene in families affected by PAH, mutations in several other genes have been discovered for both forms. The mutation landscape in these new genes is not yet well known.

Methods: We set up a next-generation sequencing-based targeted sequencing gene panel allowing known genes for PAH and PVOD/PCH to be analysed simultaneously. Genetic analysis was prospectively performed on 263 PAH and PVOD/PCH patients (adult and paediatric cases).

Results: Pathogenic mutations were identified in 19.5% of sporadic PAH patients (n=180), 54.5% of familial PAH patients and 13.3% of PVOD/PCH patients. BMPR2 was the most frequently mutated gene, followed by TBX4 in both paediatric and adult PAH. BMP9 mutations were identified in 1.2% of adult PAH cases. EIF2AK4 biallelic mutations were restricted to PVOD/PCH. A truncating mutation and a predicted loss-of-function variant were also identified in BMP10 in two severely affected sporadic PAH female patients.

Conclusion: Our results confirm that mutations are found in genes beyond BMPR2 in heritable PAH, emphasise the role of TBX4 and BMP9, and designate BMP10 as a new PAH gene.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II / genetics*
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / genetics
  • Child
  • Familial Primary Pulmonary Hypertension / genetics*
  • Female
  • Growth Differentiation Factor 2 / genetics
  • Hemangioma, Capillary / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mutation
  • Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease / genetics*
  • T-Box Domain Proteins / genetics
  • Young Adult


  • BMP10 protein, human
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
  • GDF2 protein, human
  • Growth Differentiation Factor 2
  • T-Box Domain Proteins
  • TBX4 protein, human
  • BMPR2 protein, human
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type II