Evaluation of vaccination coverage in cochlear implant patients at a referral hospital in Northern Spain

Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp (Engl Ed). 2019 Nov-Dec;70(6):336-341. doi: 10.1016/j.otorri.2018.08.001. Epub 2018 Dec 20.
[Article in English, Spanish]


Background and objective: The risk of bacterial meningitis increases in cochlear implant patients. Therefore, pneumococcal, influenza and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination is indicated in this group. The aim of this study was to determine compliance with the vaccination calendar in patients implanted in a referral hospital.

Materials and methods: Patients with cochlear implant operated between 2005 and 2015 were included. Vaccine coverage for seasonal influenza, Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal conjugate 13-serotypes and pneumococcal polysaccharide 23-serotypes was evaluated. The sample was divided into 2 age groups (<14 years and≥14 years). A univariate and bivariate analysis was performed.

Results: Of the 153 patients studied (28.01% 0-13 years old and 71.9%≥14), only 2 (5.71%) had 100% adherence to the vaccination schedule, while 65.71% had compliance of 50% or less. Overall, vaccination coverage against the sequential pneumococcal pattern was 48.57%. The paediatric population exceeded 90% coverage for the vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal conjugate 13-serotypes while in those over 14 years of age it barely exceeded 50%. Influenza coverage was less than 40%. An inverse correlation was obtained between age and compliance, although not statistically significant.

Conclusions: Vaccination coverage in patients with cochlear implant is lower than expected. Close collaboration between Otolaryngology departments and the Vaccination Units is proposed as the main strategy for improvement.

Keywords: Cochlear implant; Gripe; Haemophilus influenza type b; Haemophilus influenzae tipo b; Implante coclear; Influenza; Neumococo; Pneumococcus; Vaccine; Vacuna.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cochlear Implantation
  • Cochlear Implants*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Disease Susceptibility
  • Haemophilus Vaccines
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Meningitis, Bacterial / prevention & control*
  • Middle Aged
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines
  • Postoperative Complications / prevention & control*
  • Spain
  • Vaccination Coverage / statistics & numerical data*
  • Young Adult


  • Haemophilus Vaccines
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines